Interpretation is a translation of the oral language communication between native speakers of different languages. The art of translation includes theory and practice of translation and interpreting.
There are different kinds of interpretation:
- retour is the interpretation from mother language into the foreign language
- consecutive is a translation after speaker finishes
- pivot is using single language as a relay
- simultaneous means translation while a delegate is speaking
- relay is translation two languages into third
- sign language means interpreting into sign language
- whispering, it is whispered simultaneous interpretation
- asymmetric is listening to interpretation into only a few languages
- cheval is a specialist works in two booths in the same meeting
Who is an interpreter?
The interpreter is a specialist that conveys expressions and thoughts from a source language into the target language and delivers the accurate meaning in a target language in real time or when the speaker makes pauses after one or two phrases. The specialist has to convert every semantic element, meaning, register, feeling, tone, and intention of the message.
Modes of interpreting
1. Simultaneous translation is a type of interpreting when translator formulates a phrase into target language as quickly as they can. At the same time speaker continues the discussion and doesn't make any pauses. Translators do not know a message until they hear it. This mode requires a separate sound-proof booth and special equipment such as the microphone and earphones. An interpreter should hear and see a speaker clearly. The first case of using this method was the Nuremberg Trial.
2. Consecutive interpreting is a method of translation when the speaker makes pauses after one or two phrases to let the translator deliver the message in the target language. The speech is divided into a few segments, and the translator stands near a speaker while listening and taking notes through the discussion or monologue. This type of interpretation could be short and long. During the short CI, the translator memorizes short segments of speech and translates them into the target language, while during the long CI, the specialist takes notes to improve memorization of these segments. The methods of interpretations are decided with the client before the translation starts. It depends on the complexity of the subject and purpose of interpretation. Full consecutive interpretation requires understanding the accurate meaning of material before the translator modifies it into the target language. This approach allows more accurate and accessible translation than simultaneous one.
3. Whispered or whispering simultaneous translation is used when translator sits or stands near a speaker, and the speaker talks using his normal soft low level. Interpreter should be near should client to avoid disturbing other people. That is why during whispered translation, the special equipment such as microphone and earphones are used – it is difficult to stand near client for a long period of time and make everything out. Whispering interpretation is used when the person needs to follow the speech in a foreign language without making a contribution.
4. Relay interpretation is used when there are several target languages. One interpreter translates to the common language for other specialists. After that, translators render the message in target languages. During international forums and summits, many intermediate languages can be used. For example, Japanese could be translated to English, then English speech will be translated to French, German, Greek, Ukrainian, etc. This method is popular in the multilingual meetings of the EU institutions.
5. Liaison is interpreting one’s speech to two or more people. It could be realized as a translation after a short speech, or using whispering, sentence-by-sentence, or consecutive translations. When it comes to interpreting, it's recommended to pay extra attention to the translator's experience in the field and make sure you're dealing with a professional. We advise you to double-check the translator's certificates, language skills, experience in both translations and interpreting, and pay close attention to the feedback from their previous customers, as it usually says more than any certificate or degree can tell about interpreter's performance in the field.