Legal translation French to English
Juridical translation is a highly competitive field, which requires bundle of knowledge and professional legal background. This sector covers different types of French documents such as:
- Divorce and Marriage Certificates
- Power of Attorney
- Business Forms
- Wills and Probate
- Financial Papers
- Company Formation Documents
- Internet Law Forms
- Employment Applications
- Legal certifications and statements
- Government and legal ruling report
- Legal disclaimers
- Registration documents
- Legal certifications and statements
- Technical documents to support litigation efforts
General difficulties of translation legal documents from French to English
- There are many misunderstanding of vocabulary because of lexical particularities of the French language. The mainstream dictionaries do not cover special legal terminology. It does not deal with everyday situations.
- Legal terms connect with the particular legal system, notions, standards and laws. For this reason, French terminology can have no equivalents in English. Moreover, juridical vocabulary changes from one Anglophone country to another.
- Some old phraseology is still used in juridical documentation. It could sound archaic.
Some particularities, which can cause inaccuracy of legal translation
Present participles are used to form relative clauses. Moreover, the using of formal language means different types of this grammatical structure in common language and juridical language.
Common language Legal language
une/la personne qui vit/habite... toute personne demeurant...
une la personne qui a... toute personne ayant...
une/la personne qui veut... toute personne souhaitant...
Many expressions that were common in everyday French are used in legal documentation. Their usage has changed in daily routine. However, it stays fixed in the juridical French language. These alternations could cause many mistakes because translators search the signification of the word in mainstream dictionaries. They contain only modern meanings, but legal document often requires an interpretation that is more archaic.
les présentes the present contract/terms and conditions
appartenir to be suitable, fitting; to be necessary
entendre faire qch to intend to do sth
ci-annexé attached hereto
par les présentes hereby
ci-après désigné henceforth designated..., henceforth referred to as...
The English jurisprudence uses common law. This system evolved many centuries. The main point is precedent and consensus. Common law system is used in English-speaking countries.
The French juridical system is founded on civil law, which is founded on Code of law. It is used in the majority of countries except China and Islamic world. The Code Napoléon was a first document that created the foundation of this juridical system. Despite that this code was adopted in XIX century, it is a foundation-stone of the French system. It defines the property law, obligations and rights, inheritance and rights. As distinguished from anglophones’ legislative system, there is the dual juridical system in France. It is divided into Droit public and Droit privé. The public law describes the principles of governmental function. It is adapted in les Tribunaux administratifs. The private law considers all aspects of the private life of citizens. It is the foundation of French legislative system. It is broken down into civil arguments and criminal arguments. Tribunal de Grande Instance deal with basic civil legal arguments. It relies upon the weight of the case.
Business legal proceedings are resolved in special first degree courts. Furthermore, there is second degree Appeal court that has fundamental rights to appeal. French Supreme court is the highest level in the sector of private law. A local magistrate or Police-court